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1 The emergence of panjistani from North-Eastern Lahnda, Mirpuri/Pothwari/Pahari clusters 2 Introduction 3 major dialects of panjistani 4 Related langauges 5 seraiki 6 Hindko 7 conclusion 8 References
The emergence of Modern Panjistani from North-Eastern Lahnda/north-eastern panjabi or Mirpuri/Pothwari/Pahari clusterby mohamamd afzal from london,uk.
The linguist George Abraham Grierson in his multivolume Linguistic Survey of India (1904–1928) considered the various dialects up to then called "Western Punjabi", spoken in North, West, and South of Lahore in what is now Punjab of Pakistan, as constituting instead a distinct language from Punjabi. (The local dialect of Lahore is the Majhi dialect of Punjabi, which has long been the basis of standard literary Punjabi.) Grierson proposed to name this putative language "Lahnda", and he dubbed as "South-Western Lahnda" the coherent dialect cluster now known as Saraiki spoken in Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur division and "North-eastern Lahnda" now known as Modern Panjistani, spoken in Rawalpindi division and most of Azad Kashmir ascertined by m. afzal,london,uk 2007 and others, and "North-Western Lahnda" now known as Hindko spoken in the regions bordering North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). While the term "Eastern Punjabi" referred to the language based on Majhi, Jhangochi, Shahpuri and Dhani (a sub-dialect of shahpuri), these dialects are mostly spoken in central districts of Pakistani Punjab. The standard Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province. Lahore, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sialkot, Jhang, Jhelum and Gujrat. Lahore the historic capital of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of total population of the city. and Islamabad the Capital of Pakistan has 71% Native Punjabis of total population. Punjabi dialects are thus spoken by almost 60% of the population in Pakistan if Western Punjabi dialects (Hindko, and Saraiki) are also taken into account. The standard Punjabi dialects (Majhi, Jhangochi, Shahpuri,panjistani (Pothohari-mirpuri) and Dhanni) are spoken by the 44.15% of the total population of Pakistan.
This language is spoken in north-eastern Punjab Province (so-called panjistan region) and Azad Kashmir(Pahar/modern poonch/mirpur), it is mainly the langauge of Greater Pothohar(panjistani-speaking belt) and azad kashmir (ascertined by Mohammad Afzal of london,2001) is spoken and extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called southern Hindko in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari,North-Eastern lahnda.
Introduction major dialects of panjistani A)Pothwari
The langauge of rawalpindi-islamabad and it is the prestige dalicet of the modern literary langauge.
This dialect is the second most imporatnt dailect of panjistani and used in modern literature.
This the northern most extreme dialect of panjistani and not much used in the modern language.
It is mostly spoken in north of shahpur and this is a mixture of Jurghda or eastern panjabi and seraiki transitional dialect.
it is used around Jhelum city and other nearby districts and it is very simalir to mirpuri dialect.
The people of this region do not speak standard panjistani langauge. However, the people of Chakwal or the Dhanni area in particular do speak a similar langauge to northen shahpuri with a distinctive Dhanni (or Chakwali) accect as spoken in the Shahpur-Salt Range area and also has a moderate influnce of Hindko/Saraiki and Jurghda or Eastern Panjabi.
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