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Panjistani

'Modern Panjistani', (sometimes also known as North-Eastern Lahnda/Pothohari/mirpuri/pahari or occasionally called North-Eastern Panjabi) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the Pothohar Plateau or greater panjistan and Jammu and kashmir, including the cities of Rawalpindi, Kahuta, Gujar Khan, Jehlum, Poonch, Mirpur; its spoken most of Northern Gujrat in the south-west; Chakwal in the west, Hazara in the north, and Azad Kashmir in the east. A large overseas population is found in the UK. Modern Panjistani is considered a Notrh-eastern lahndi variety between Lahnda, south-western Pahari, Hindko, and jurgdha/ sardari or Eastern Punjabi (see m. afzal and Gierson). Speakers understand much of sardari or eastern Punjabi, but comprehension in the reverse direction is difficult. The name Pahari-Potwari is sometimes used for modern Panjistani, where pahari (mountain) refers to Jammu Kashmir. There are slight variations in the vocabulary between the Potohar Plateau (or panjistan mulak or country) in the west and Jammu and Kashmir in the east.

Major Dialects;

  • Dhundi-Kairali (Pahari)
  • Potwari/Central
  • Chibhali
  • Punchhi (Poonchi)
  • Mirpuri/Eastern
  • Northern Shahpuri
  • Dhanni/chakwali
  • Jehlumi/Southern




the two other related Lahnda langauges to modern panjistani language

'Multani or Saraiki'

Saraiki (Shahmukhi: سرائیکی, Gurmukhi: ਸਰਾਇਕੀ, Devanagari: सराइकी), also spelled Siraiki and Seraiki, is a standardized written language belonging to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) language family. It is spoken in the South Punjab of Indian sub-continent. No mention of Saraiki as a unified identity is ever been made before the creation of Pakistan. Saraiki is based on a group of vernacular, historically unwritten dialects spoken by over 15-20 million people across the southern most half and the northwest of Punjab Province, southern districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, the adjacent border regions of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces, and nearly 70,000 migrants and their descendants in India,[1] who migrated as a result of the partition of India, and about a million population of Pakistani and Indian diaspora in different parts of the world especially the Middle East. Saraiki is also spoken by some Hindus in Afghanistan, albeit the total number of speakers there is still unknown.

The development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, driven by a regionalist political movement.[5]:838[6] The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki speakers since 1981.[7]:46 Saraiki is the fourth most widely spoken language in Pakistan after Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi; and within Punjab Province it is one of the two major languages. Saraiki is ranked 52nd largest language of the world.

'sarhadi or Hindko'

Hindko (Hindku, Hinko; ہندکو), also Western Panjnadi or (ambiguously) Peshwari, is a cluster of North-Westren Lahnda (northwestern Panjabi) dialects. It is the sixth main regional language of Pakistan, spoken by Pashtun as well as non-Pashtun people of northwestern Panjab.[3] It forms a subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages,[4] some Pashtun tribes in Pakistan, as well as by the Hindki people of Afghanistan. The word "Hindko" has also been interpreted to mean the language of India[5] and most probably "Indus" which is the source of etymology for all these words.[6] The term is also found in Greek references to the mountainous region in eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan as Καύκασος Ινδικός (Caucasus Indicus, or Hindu Kush). The language is spoken in the areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (including Hazara), Punjab (including Attock), and Pakistan Administered Kashmir.

There is no generic name for these people because they belong to diverse ethnicities and tend to identify themselves by the larger families or castes. However the people of the largest group in the districts of Haripur, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Battagram and Kohistan are sometimes recognised collectively as Hazarawal, named after the defunct Hazara Division that comprised these districts. In Peshawar city they are called Peshawari or "Kharay" by Pashtuns meaning City-dwellers.

Subcategories

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