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Lahnda

In 1919, Grierson maintained that the dialects of what is now the southwest of Punjab Province in Pakistan constitute a dialect cluster, which he designated "Southern Lahnda" within a putative "Lahnda language". Subsequent Indo-Aryanist linguists have confirmed the reality of this dialect cluster, even while some partially reject the name "Southern Lahnda" along with the entity "Lahnda" , although the concept of "Lahnda" is still found in compilations of the world's languages.

There is a tendency for some discussions of the southern lahnda dialects (seraiki) and their emerging standard literary language to incorrectly include dialects or languages spoken farther north (Western Lahnda and Northern Lahnda), in particular Hindko and modern Panjistani (pahari-pothwari-mirpuri-dhanni), see below for further details.

Panjistani, seraiki and Hindko languages

This error is due to confusing Multani, (Grierson's "Southern Lahnda" which is termed now seraiki) with Grierson's larger category of Lahnda, within which Grierson included Nothern lahnda and western lahnda dialects spoken north of the Salt Range, now called Modern Panjistani (Potwari, Dhanni, Poonchi, Mirpuri) and Hindko (Peshwari, Kohati, Sarhadi, Jandali), as stated by Mohammd Afzal of London UK. While the more northern dialects are considerably similar to Saraiki in linguistic structure, starting with Grierson they have been recognised as definitely distinct from the dialect cluster spoken south of the Salt Range.

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